are another person's exact words--either spoken or in print--incorporated into
your own writing.
a set of quotation marks to enclose each direct quotation included in your
a capital letter with the first word of a direct quotation of a whole sentence.
Do not use a capital letter with the first word of a direct quotation of part of
the quotation is interrupted and then continues in your sentence, do not
capitalize the second part of the quotation.
Mr. and Mrs. Allen, owners of a
300-acre farm, said, "We refuse to use that pesticide
it might pollute the nearby wells."
Mr. and Mrs. Allen stated that
they "refuse to use that pesticide" because of possible
"He likes to talk about
football," she said, "especially when the Super Bowl is coming
are not exact words but rather rephrasings or summaries of another person's
words. Do not use quotation marks for indirect quotations.
According to their statement to the local papers, the Allens refuse to use pesticide because of potential water pollution.
Omitted words in a quotation
you leave words out of a quotation, use an ellipsis mark to indicate the omitted
words. If you need to insert something within a quotation, use a pair of
brackets to enclose the addition. For example:
The welfare agency representative said, "We are unable to help
every family that we'd like to help because we don't have the funds to do so."
omitted material The welfare agency representative said, "We are unable to help
with ellipsis every family . . . because we don't have the funds to do so."
The welfare agency representative explained that they are "unable
with brackets to help every family that [they would] like to help."
MLA style requires any quote that goes to four lines to be done block style (APA requires block style after 40 words). Block quotes begin on a new line, indented ten spaces and do not use quotation marks. Notice how the quotes are introduced AND that there is a follow-up to the quote. The first is APA; the second is MLA.
1. This method exemplified by those above and many others was a common procedure; it was not until
the 1960's that scholars began to focus on capturing the performance of the storyteller rather than just
the story itself. There are several reasons to consider for the lack of attention to narrative structure.
First, as Tedlock points out, there were no tape recorders to aid the field worker who was more likely to
be interested in content rather than style since the substance was the story, not the manner in which it
was told (Finding the Center 37). Also, without the tape recorder, the field worker was forced to
repeatedly stop the storyteller in order to write out the dictation, which hampered any possibility of
hearing the normal pauses and breaks (“Translation” 29). Second, many believed that style was
untranslatable anyway. Both Boas and A. L. Kroeber believed that the literary form was a property of
the native language and hence, could not be rendered into English. As Arnold Krupat discusses in "On
the Translation of Native American Song and Story: A Theorized History," translators had to recognize
that native languages were both like and unlike European languages (8). He states:
All English translations from Native language performances cannot help but place
themselves in relation to Western conceptions of art (literature) or of (social) science as they
inevitably privilege either the Sameness of Native American verbal expression in forms aspiring
to what is accessibly recognizable as literary, or its Difference, in forms committed to scientific
authenticity and accuracy. (8)
Most did not look for the similarity in the native language and only perceived the dissimilarity and
to make the narrative appear as the audience would expect.
2. George and Shoos pose two questions concerning the teacher’s role in this type of class that seem
suggest that silence may be due to the teacher’s position:
How do we, as composition instructors using a cultural studies approach, design our classes so
that we do not judge our students’ positions by how closely they mimic our own? How do we
set up true ‘communication and dialogue’ as Friere suggests we must if real education is to
They suggest choosing texts for study that we find perturbing or disturbing so that meaning is as
unstable for us as it is for our students. In those texts, instead of looking for definitive answers to the
questions we pose about the text, we need to explore how cultural forms and subjectivity play a role in
that text (207-9).
Quote with a change from the original (MLA)
3. One of the more prevalent problems of teaching with a cultural studies approach is that in encouraging students to critique their culture, they may misunderstand our intentions and believe that we are either asking them to discard their experiences as trivial or to conform to our way of thinking about those experiences. This perception would surely cause some students to remain silent rather than challenge us. George and Shoos note that “asking students to become critical readers of their culture does not mean demanding that they reject that culture” (201). They further note, “[I]f we judge our students’ work by whether or not they come to the same conclusions as we do, we not only send them conflicting messages about their own worth as thinkers but also insure our own failure as teachers” (201). Thus, it is plausible that part of the silence we encounter comes from students who mistakenly believe we want them to conform to our beliefs, so we must guard against sending that message.
Other samples in MLA
Tedlock has employed the former criteria in translating Zuni narratives.
He felt "unhappy with the
flat prose format which had always been used in presenting" field
narratives (xviii). So as he
listened to taped oral performances, he worked out a mode of presentation which
combined the poetic with the dramatic features.
These elements combined with the narrative form mark a
pattern Hymes identifies as form-meaning covariation. He states that
"while certain elements regularly serve to mark verses, this role is
dependent upon the organization of the whole" (440).
So one of the particles may occur with its normal lexical meaning and
would not indicate a narrative pattern.
The narrative particle that occurs the least number of
times is higú 'still, now, yet';
twice it occurs with zhige 'again' and
twice without any suffixes. Its
function seems to refer to the progression of events through narrative time, much
like White described its use in referring "to the arrival of the present
section which continues the story" (Winnebago Narratives 17). In the first occurrence of higú-zhige,
it begins a new verse, and here, it refers back to an action that is now to be
7. White has stated that zheegú refers to "that which has continued going by," indicating that zheegú is some kind of marker of connection (“Trickster” 54). In some cases, it clearly does mark a connection.
Danker, Kathleen A. “Because of This I am Called the Foolish One: Felix White, Sr.'s,
Interpretations of the Winnebago Trickster.” New Voices in Native American Literary
Criticism Ed. Arnold Krupat. Smithsonian Series of Studies in Native American
Smithsonian Institute Press, 1993. 505-528.
Kathleen A. The
Winnebago Narratives of Felix White, Sr.: Style,
U of Nebraska. Lincoln,
Barbara F., Ed. The Ethnologue.
13th ed. 1996. 8 Nov. 1998
Bible. Revised Standard
Version. Thomas Nelson & Sons:
Grammar of Winnebago. New York:
King's Crown Press. 1945
Road of Life and Death. 1945.
Bollingen Series V. Princeton,
U Press. 1973.
the Center: Narrative Poetry of the Zuni Indians. New York:
Dial Press. 1972.
Dennis. “On the Translation of
Style in Oral Narrative.” Smoothing the
Ground: Essays on Native American Oral Literature. Ed. Brian Swann. Berkeley, CA:
of California Press, 1983. 57-77.