Ephedra sp. 'Mormon Tea'

I. Features of Plants and Their Products

A. What are plants?

1. evolutionary history of plants

-Tree of Life

animals: "nitrogen rich, carbon poor"

plants: "carbon rich, nitrogen poor"

2. cellular properties

-a typical plant cell

(cell walls, chloroplasts, central vacuole)

a. Cell wall


-cellulose molecule

-microfibrils and glue 

-advantages of wall

disease protection

regulation of water uptake

-human benefits

b. chloroplasts

The leaf as a solar panel


-thylakoids (grana)

-What happens when light strikes a molecule of chlorophyll?


-summary of light reactions and Calvin Cycle

-summary of photosynthesis

-human benefits

c. Vacuole



-pigments oak trees

-plant secondary chemistry

B. Plant Structure

1. Roots

a. germinating seedling

-external views: seed root hairs1 

-internal view

longitudinal section

cross section

xylem & phloem

b. tap roots and fibrous roots

c. Other variations beetroot

2. Stems

a. types

-leaf "holder"




-tubers tuber2



3. Leaves

What is a leaf?

a. leaf arrangements; simple or compound

b. functions

-light absorption (Solar tracking heliotropism)

-gas exchange (stomates) stomates2

c. leaf modifications




4. Flowers

a. main function

-why do flowers smell and look good?

b. Floral anatomy 101

c. How are gametes formed?



d. How do pollen and egg get together?

Chlorofilms video

- pollination


wind, insect mammals mammals2

selfing vs cross pollination


How does it work?

double fertilization

growth of the zygote leads to seed formation

gymnosperm vs angiosperm (1) (2)

e. What is the difference between a fruit and a vegetable?

fruit or vegetable?

f. Why do flowering plants produce fruits?




digestive tract scarification and distribution of mesquite acacia